Category: South Asia


How do we incorporate the cultural expectations of our particular locations in our own theological development? What elements inform our community’s imagination and supply meaning to its spiritual vocabulary? How can we communicate effectively who Christ is and the significance of the gospel?

In 1927, Po Ch’en Kuang viewed the Chinese religious classics Analects, Mencius, and the Book of Songs and Rites as comparable to the prophets, Psalms, and Deuteronomy of the Hebrew Scriptures that were included in the canon by non-Hebrew Christian groups. As Kwok Pui Lan summarized his argument, “since the Bible contains the important classics of the Jewish people which preceded Jesus, he could see no reason why the Chinese would not include their own” (“Discovering the Bible in the Non-Biblical World.” Voices from the Margins. R.S. Sugirtharajah, ed.  1991, 302).

Some Christian communities in India exemplify this approach through the incorporation of Vedic Hindu Scriptures. The Vedas and Hindu traditions define the lexicon of the spirituality and so to access this subsystem of the culture requires fluency in the associated terms and grammar. Thangaraj describes the possibility of viewing the Hindu scriptures as a type of “Old Testament for Indian Christians” and the need to “…read the Hindu Scriptures in the light of Christ, just as the early Jewish disciples of Jesus had done with the Hebrew Scriptures” (“The Bible as Veda: Biblical Hermeneutics in Tamil Christianity.” Vernacular Hermeneutics. R.S. Sugirtharajah, ed. 1999, 136). This perspective takes seriously the extent to which the Hinduism and the Vedic scriptures have shaped the culture and religious expectation in India. One must mine the cultural influence of the Hindu Scripture to present an image of Christ that is recognizable and incorporated into the lives of the community.

Which of these is closest to the image of Christ?

Within these convergent communities, local theologians utilize the existing thought forms and archetypes to mold their unique Christologies. As a North American example, Gabe Lyons, in his book The Next Christians (2010), labels some communities of North American Christians restorers, in clear differentiation from a former buzzword, relevant. A defining characteristic of these communities is a countercultural relationship with the majority culture. The term “countercultural” is not void of meaning to this community, however, as they possess preconceived images that define it. To view Christ as countercultural places him in a category of other iconoclasts and may conjure images of Che Guevara, Malcolm X, or Bob Dylan. Elements of the lives of each of these men find greater definition when applied to Christ, such as commitment to societal change, redefining oneself in relation to one’s commitment to faith, or using poetic language to convey a message of hope and love. A more contemporary example of the countercultural iconoclast is the street artist Banksy, an anonymous activist known to beautify public places in an attempt to bring attention to injustices or awaken people to a life of deeper significance.  The theologizing of the restorers follows the pre-existing pattern to determine the type of countercultural figure Jesus is and the manner in which the community can align their lives after his in discipleship.  For this community to comprehend Christ, they begin with the images with which they are familiar and then seek the direction of scripture to add greater definition.

What elements exist within your community that form its “lexicon of spirituality”? How can these  be used and re-interpreted to convey the gospel?

This essay was excerpted from “Form, Re-Form: Religious and Cultural Identity in the Formation of Christian Theology” , by Michael Shepherd. The full material can be found here and is open for dialogue and review.

Foundation University is sponsoring a new scholarly journal project called the Journal of Global Theology. See below for information about the inaugural volume :

Global theology in the internet era: an examination of the importance of the internet as a tool for the promulgation of Christian theology

The Journal of Global Theology (Foundation University) seeks to provide insight into the study of Christian Theology from a decidedly Global perspective. We offer readers an opportunity to view theology from various viewpoints while at the same time maintaining both an orthodox Christian viewpoint and an openness to differing Christian traditions. We seek contributions from every corner of the globe and encourage especially contributions from Asia, the Pacific Rim, the African continent, and the Middle East. Nonetheless, contributions from North and South America and Europe are also welcome.

Journal of Global Theology is aiming to promote scholarly discussions, contributions and dialogue in the following fields:

  1. •Contextual Theology
  2. •Intercultural Theology
  3. •Inter-religious Dialogue
  4. •Theology and Internet
  5. •Peace and Justice

The Journal of Global Theology accepts submissions in English, French, German, and Spanish.

If you would like to contribute, please send your essay to our Editor, Dr. Jim West, at drjewest@gmail.com and note in the subject line ‘submission for the Journal of Global Theology’. All submissions will be subjected to ‘blind peer review’ and those accepted will be notified accordingly.

Francis X. Clooney, SJ responds to a question posed following an interfaith event in which he shared his experiences within Hinduism:  “Is enlightenment compatible with Christian faith?”

He writes:

I think there were two components to the question I was asked: First, is it compatible with Christian faith that someone have a sudden, radical change in life, a single mind- and life-altering experience, insight? Second, can a Christian who experiences enlightenment have that irreversible unitive experience, realizing all reality to be simply, entirely one?

The question of enlightenment turns out to be timely, in light of this Sunday’s Gospel, the call of the first apostles in Mark 1.14-20. For is it not a kind of enlightenment scene? Consider what we hear: Continue reading

Mark Roncace is seeking contributors for two volumes, Global Perspectives on the Old Testament and Global Perspectives on the New Testament. Pearson Prentice Hall is publishing Global Perspectives on the Bible this year. Next, separate OT and NT volumes, also to be published by Prentice Hall, will be produced. Both books will feature much of the same material as the original Bible volume, but with added essays.

The books—designed as entry level college textbooks—gather four different essays around one biblical text. The essays are brief (about 1,000 words and need not be “scholarly”) and articulate insights from a particular geographical, social, cultural, economic, religious, or ideological context/location. Here is the list of texts/books for which he need essays.

  • Genesis 6-9
  • Numbers 22-24
  • Leviticus
  • Judges
  • 1-2 Kings
  • Jeremiah
  • Ezekiel 1-25
  • Esther
  • Ecclesiastes
  • Daniel
  • Crucifixion narratives
  • Acts (other than chapter 2)
  • Corinthians
  • Galatians
  • 1-2 Thessalonians
  • James
  • Pastorals (1-2 Timothy, Titus)
  • 1-3 John
  • 1-2 Peter

Please let Mark know if you are interested (mroncace@wingate.edu) in writing an essay on one (or two) of these texts and he will forward specific guidelines and a sample. In addition to scholars, Mark is particularly interested in gathering perspectives from non-professional readers. He is trying to run on a tight schedule: final OT essays are due April 1 and final NT essays are due June 1 (but remember they are only about 1,000 words).

As we approach a well-known season in many churches liturgical calendars, we are starting a blog series focusing on different perspectives of characters in the Christmas story, holiday practices, and advent themes.

African Christmas: A Wise Man Sees a Star in the East

We are requesting submissions of pieces, 500-1500 words expressing the significance of Christmas or Advent within a distinct cultural perspective.

We request posts from primary sources serving in a Non-Western context as well as secondary sources with the ability to give voice to another perspective.

Some possible prompts:

Which characters of the story appear in your context? (shepherds, wise men, travelers, etc.)

What significant elements are present in your church to prepare for or celebrate the holiday?

Which scriptures are most meaningful for your community to understand the incarnation of Christ, and why?

What sermons are written in this time of year for your community?

By sharing together our perspectives of the holiday, we look forward to hearing a familiar story with fresh ears and seeing the advent of God in Christ with new eyes, initiating a kingdom that brings all people together as the children of God.

Please see our Write Page for information about contributing.

Questions or submissions can be directed by email to submissions.globaltheology@gmail.com

Christmas is all about a migration story.  I am not referring to Santa’s Christmas Eve sleigh ride around the world—that’s travel, not migration—and it’s also not what Christmas is all about.

Even Jesus, Mary, and Joseph’s escape as refugees to Egypt just after the visit of the Magi—while certainly a formative experience in young Jesus’ life and an experience upon which we would do well to reflect upon—is not at the very center of the Christmas story. Continue reading

Throughout our Feminist Ethics class, I have been thinking about Mary Daly’s concept of “Goddess” in her Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism.  I don’t believe that there is any sound theological argument that the term “God” itself represents patriarchy. Theologically speaking, if we study the Bible systematically, particularly Genesis 1:27, it is unquestionable that God is associated with both feminine and masculine imagery.  God is imaged as both mother and father. In contrast to this nature, Mary Daly does not merely seek to erase masculine imagery from the term “God,” but the word “God” itself.  However, “Goddess” without the masculine imagery can no longer be the Perfect Goddess, just as “God” without the image of the feminine also remains imperfect.

As I see it, the problem lies not with using the term “God” itself, but how we understand and interpret God with our knowledge and languages. In short, we need not eliminate the word “God”—we need only change our traditional understanding of God.

Continue reading

One of the holistic personal growth disciplines I practice is Yoga.  The connection of body and breath and the clarity of mind brought on by the stretching of the body bring enormous psychological refreshment, and the flowing movements and stretching itself if of considerable physical benefit.

In the past few months, I have also been studying Yoga philosophy, of which there is a considerable body of work, though it is only now beginning to become widely available and easily accessible in the West.  One neatly packaged summary of both Yoga philosophy and Yoga practice (and many yogis would no doubt balk at that dichotomy) is Yoga for Depression, by Amy Weintraub (Broadway Books, 2004).  Weitraub, a Yoga teacher and fellow at the Kripalu Yoga center literally cured her own depression through Yoga practice.  I have not finished the book, and cannot yet comment on its merits, though so far it seems promising.

However, one comment early in the book caught by attention.  Speaking of Yoga philosophy, Weintraub writes, “There is no original sin in the system of Yoga.  There is only wholeness and separation.”  Weintraub is suggesting that we are separated from our identity, our unity with the rest of the universe, and this is the source of suffering and one of the causes of depression.

I think Weintraub is right.  We do not know who we are as human beings.  We do not recognize the fingerprints of the Divine Creator in us and on us.  We forget what glorious beings we were created to be.  Continue reading

Henna Storytelling

Imagine if you had several hours to sit with someone and listen to their story, while re-assuring them with your touch and sharing with them spiritually transforming concepts in the casual tone that defies barriers. Imagine if that person whom you have shared with would be able to have tangible reminders of your conversation–and how much you care–to reflect back upon during the following weeks. Imagine if she was also compelled to tell her friends about your conversation and the spirituality you had shared one afternoon.

Imagine if that storytelling were done in such a beautiful and creative way that it adorned that woman  as exemplar as a child of God.

In South Asia, there is a project to use henna art and storytelling to tell stories from the Bible and the gospel message. Continue reading

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